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Study Notes Geography Download PDF

Study Notes Geography Download PDF

Dear Reader 

As we have discussed about the study notes on Geography . You can Download The pdf,  which is also the main topic of SSC and any of the government exam. Today we are going to share another pdf file that is also the important topic for the govt. competitive exams  that is Study Notes Of Geography .

Measurement Units of Space are :

Light Year : It is the distance covered by light in one year in vacuum at a speed of 3 105 km/s.

Astronomical Unit (A.U) : It is the mean distance between the earth and the sun. One light year is equal to 60,000 A.U.

• Parsec : It represents the distance at which the mean radius of earth’s orbit subtends an angle of one second of an arc. It is equal to 3.26 light years.

Stars are self – luminous bodies that account for 98 per cent of the material in the galaxy. The rest 2 per cent consists of interstellar or galactic gas and dust in an attenuated form.

A star’s colour indicates the temperature of its surface. Blue colour denotes maximum temperature. Then comes yellow, then red, etc.

• The life of a star is spread over billions of years. It begins to form by compression of galactic gas and dust. Compression generates heat which in turn causes hydrogen to be converted into helium in nuclear fusion, thereby emitting large amount of heat and light.

• If the star is of sun’s size, it becomes a White Dwarf. Their central density can reach up to
10grams per cubic cm.

• If die star is bigger than the sun but not more than twice as big, it will turn into a Neutron Star or Pulsar. Their Central density is 1014 grams per cubic cm. They are formed due to Novae or Super novae explosion.

Important Fact about Solar System.

  •  Biggest Planet: Jupiter
  •  Smallest Planet: Mercury
  •  Nearest Planet to Sun: Mercury
  •  Farthest Planet from Sun: Neptune
  •  Nearest Planet to Earth: Venus
  •  Brightest Planet: Venus
  •  Brightest star after Sun: Sirius
  •  Planet with maximum satellites: Jupiter
  •  Coldest Planet: Neptune
  •  Hottest Planet: Venus
  •  Heaviest Planet: Jupiter
  •  Red Planet: Mars
  •  Biggest Satellite: Gannymede
  •  Smallest Satellite: Deimos
  •  Blue Planet: Earth
  •  Morning/Evening Star: Venus
  •  Earth's Twin: Venus
  •  Green Planet: Neptune
  •  Planet with a big red spot: Jupiter
  •  Lord of the Heavens: Jupiter
  •  Greatest Diurnal Temperature: Mercury

Rivers of India

In India, the rivers can be divided into two main groups

 1. Himalayan Rivers
 2. Peninsular Rivers

Himalayan Rivers of India

In this three major river systems are there:

The Indus System

• It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet (China) near Mansarovar Lake.

• In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras, Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc

• Its most important tributaries, which join Indus at various places, are: Jhelum (725 km), Chenab (1800km), Ravi (720 km), Beas (470 km) & Sutlej (1050 km).

• According to the Indus Water Treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, India can
utilize only 20% of the total discharge of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab.

The Ganga System

It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand and UP, 445 km in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal.

The Ganga, the head stream is constituted of two main rivers – Bhagirthi and Alaknanda, which combine at Devprayag to form Ganga.

Before Alaknanda meets Bhagirthi at Devprayag, Mandakini meets Alaknanda at Rudraprayag.

Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh, Alaknanda from
Badrinath, Mandakini from Kedarnath (all from

The Brahmaputra system

• It has a total length of 2900 km. It rises in Tibet (from Chemayungdung glacier), where it is called Tsangpo, and enters the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang.

Important Tributaries: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta.

• In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna while Ganga gets the name Padma. 

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